Android Handler mechanism: how ThreadLocal works

1, Handler mechanism and ThreadLocal

In the Handler mechanism, we will encounter a very important class in Looper: ThreadLocal, ThreadLocal is not a thread, its function is to store data in each thread.

When the handler is created, it will get the Looper of the current thread to construct the message loop system. The way to get it is through ThreadLocal. ThreadLocal can store and provide complementary interference data in different threads. Handler can easily obtain the Looper of each thread through ThreadLocal. Of course, it should be noted that the thread does not have a Looper by default. If you need to use a handler, you must create a Looper for the thread.

The main thread, also known as UI thread, is often referred to as ActivityThread. When ActivityThread is created, Looper will be initialized, which is why Handler can be used by default in the main thread.

2, ThreadLocal basic usage

ThreadLocal is a data storage class within a thread, through which data can be stored in the specified thread. After data storage, only the data stored in the specified thread can be obtained, but for other threads, data cannot be obtained. In general development scenarios, we can't use ThreadLocal, but in some very complex or special scenarios, we can easily implement some seemingly complex functions through ThreadLocal.

In the system mechanism of Android, ThreadLocal is used in the following source code:

  • Looper
  • ActivityThread
  • ActivityManagerService

Specific to the use scenario of ThreadLocal, it can be generally summarized as follows: when some data is in the scope of thread and different threads have different copies of data, ThreadLocal can be considered.

Here is the simplest example of using ThreadLocal:

public class ThreadLocalTest {

    static ThreadLocal threadLocal = new ThreadLocal();

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        threadLocal.set(true);
        System.out.println("Main ThreadLocal Value = " + threadLocal.get());
        new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                threadLocal.set(false);
                System.out.println("ThreadLocal_1 Value = " + threadLocal.get());
            }
        }).start();
        new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                System.out.println("ThreadLocal_2 Value = " + threadLocal.get());
            }
        }).start();
    }
}

The output is as follows:

Main ThreadLocal Value = true
ThreadLocal_1 Value = false
ThreadLocal_2 Value = null

It can be seen that although the same ThreadLocal object is accessed in different threads, the values they get through ThreadLocal are different, which is the wonder of ThreadLocal.

3, ThreadLocal source code

/**
 * This class provides thread-local variables.  These variables differ from
 * their normal counterparts in that each thread that accesses one (via its
 * {@code get} or {@code set} method) has its own, independently initialized
 * copy of the variable.  {@code ThreadLocal} instances are typically private
 * static fields in classes that wish to associate state with a thread (e.g.,
 * a user ID or Transaction ID).
 *
 * <p>For example, the class below generates unique identifiers local to each
 * thread.
 * A thread's id is assigned the first time it invokes {@code ThreadId.get()}
 * and remains unchanged on subsequent calls.
 * <pre>
 * import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
 *
 * public class ThreadId {
 *     // Atomic integer containing the next thread ID to be assigned
 *     private static final AtomicInteger nextId = new AtomicInteger(0);
 *
 *     // Thread local variable containing each thread's ID
 *     private static final ThreadLocal&lt;Integer&gt; threadId =
 *         new ThreadLocal&lt;Integer&gt;() {
 *             &#64;Override protected Integer initialValue() {
 *                 return nextId.getAndIncrement();
 *         }
 *     };
 *
 *     // Returns the current thread's unique ID, assigning it if necessary
 *     public static int get() {
 *         return threadId.get();
 *     }
 * }
 * </pre>
 * <p>Each thread holds an implicit reference to its copy of a thread-local
 * variable as long as the thread is alive and the {@code ThreadLocal}
 * instance is accessible; after a thread goes away, all of its copies of
 * thread-local instances are subject to garbage collection (unless other
 * references to these copies exist).
 *
 * @author  Josh Bloch and Doug Lea
 * @since   1.2
 */
public class ThreadLocal<T> {
    /**
     * ThreadLocals rely on per-thread linear-probe hash maps attached
     * to each thread (Thread.threadLocals and
     * inheritableThreadLocals).  The ThreadLocal objects act as keys,
     * searched via threadLocalHashCode.  This is a custom hash code
     * (useful only within ThreadLocalMaps) that eliminates collisions
     * in the common case where consecutively constructed ThreadLocals
     * are used by the same threads, while remaining well-behaved in
     * less common cases.
     */
    private final int threadLocalHashCode = nextHashCode();

    /**
     * The next hash code to be given out. Updated atomically. Starts at
     * zero.
     */
    private static AtomicInteger nextHashCode =
        new AtomicInteger();

    /**
     * The difference between successively generated hash codes - turns
     * implicit sequential thread-local IDs into near-optimally spread
     * multiplicative hash values for power-of-two-sized tables.
     */
    private static final int HASH_INCREMENT = 0x61c88647;

    /**
     * Returns the next hash code.
     */
    private static int nextHashCode() {
        return nextHashCode.getAndAdd(HASH_INCREMENT);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the current thread's "initial value" for this
     * thread-local variable.  This method will be invoked the first
     * time a thread accesses the variable with the {@link #get}
     * method, unless the thread previously invoked the {@link #set}
     * method, in which case the {@code initialValue} method will not
     * be invoked for the thread.  Normally, this method is invoked at
     * most once per thread, but it may be invoked again in case of
     * subsequent invocations of {@link #remove} followed by {@link #get}.
     *
     * <p>This implementation simply returns {@code null}; if the
     * programmer desires thread-local variables to have an initial
     * value other than {@code null}, {@code ThreadLocal} must be
     * subclassed, and this method overridden.  Typically, an
     * anonymous inner class will be used.
     *
     * @return the initial value for this thread-local
     */
    protected T initialValue() {
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a thread local variable. The initial value of the variable is
     * determined by invoking the {@code get} method on the {@code Supplier}.
     *
     * @param <S> the type of the thread local's value
     * @param supplier the supplier to be used to determine the initial value
     * @return a new thread local variable
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified supplier is null
     * @since 1.8
     */
    public static <S> ThreadLocal<S> withInitial(Supplier<? extends S> supplier) {
        return new SuppliedThreadLocal<>(supplier);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a thread local variable.
     * @see #withInitial(java.util.function.Supplier)
     */
    public ThreadLocal() {
    }

    /**
     * Returns the value in the current thread's copy of this
     * thread-local variable.  If the variable has no value for the
     * current thread, it is first initialized to the value returned
     * by an invocation of the {@link #initialValue} method.
     *
     * @return the current thread's value of this thread-local
     */
    public T get() {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null) {
            ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this);
            if (e != null) {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                T result = (T)e.value;
                return result;
            }
        }
        return setInitialValue();
    }

    /**
     * Variant of set() to establish initialValue. Used instead
     * of set() in case user has overridden the set() method.
     *
     * @return the initial value
     */
    private T setInitialValue() {
        T value = initialValue();
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null)
            map.set(this, value);
        else
            createMap(t, value);
        return value;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the current thread's copy of this thread-local variable
     * to the specified value.  Most subclasses will have no need to
     * override this method, relying solely on the {@link #initialValue}
     * method to set the values of thread-locals.
     *
     * @param value the value to be stored in the current thread's copy of
     *        this thread-local.
     */
    public void set(T value) {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null)
            map.set(this, value);
        else
            createMap(t, value);
    }

    /**
     * Removes the current thread's value for this thread-local
     * variable.  If this thread-local variable is subsequently
     * {@linkplain #get read} by the current thread, its value will be
     * reinitialized by invoking its {@link #initialValue} method,
     * unless its value is {@linkplain #set set} by the current thread
     * in the interim.  This may result in multiple invocations of the
     * {@code initialValue} method in the current thread.
     *
     * @since 1.5
     */
     public void remove() {
         ThreadLocalMap m = getMap(Thread.currentThread());
         if (m != null)
             m.remove(this);
     }

    /**
     * Get the map associated with a ThreadLocal. Overridden in
     * InheritableThreadLocal.
     *
     * @param  t the current thread
     * @return the map
     */
    ThreadLocalMap getMap(Thread t) {
        return t.threadLocals;
    }

    /**
     * Create the map associated with a ThreadLocal. Overridden in
     * InheritableThreadLocal.
     *
     * @param t the current thread
     * @param firstValue value for the initial entry of the map
     */
    void createMap(Thread t, T firstValue) {
        t.threadLocals = new ThreadLocalMap(this, firstValue);
    }

    /**
     * Factory method to create map of inherited thread locals.
     * Designed to be called only from Thread constructor.
     *
     * @param  parentMap the map associated with parent thread
     * @return a map containing the parent's inheritable bindings
     */
    static ThreadLocalMap createInheritedMap(ThreadLocalMap parentMap) {
        return new ThreadLocalMap(parentMap);
    }

    /**
     * Method childValue is visibly defined in subclass
     * InheritableThreadLocal, but is internally defined here for the
     * sake of providing createInheritedMap factory method without
     * needing to subclass the map class in InheritableThreadLocal.
     * This technique is preferable to the alternative of embedding
     * instanceof tests in methods.
     */
    T childValue(T parentValue) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
    }

    /**
     * An extension of ThreadLocal that obtains its initial value from
     * the specified {@code Supplier}.
     */
    static final class SuppliedThreadLocal<T> extends ThreadLocal<T> {

        private final Supplier<? extends T> supplier;

        SuppliedThreadLocal(Supplier<? extends T> supplier) {
            this.supplier = Objects.requireNonNull(supplier);
        }

        @Override
        protected T initialValue() {
            return supplier.get();
        }
    }

    /**
     * ThreadLocalMap is a customized hash map suitable only for
     * maintaining thread local values. No operations are exported
     * outside of the ThreadLocal class. The class is package private to
     * allow declaration of fields in class Thread.  To help deal with
     * very large and long-lived usages, the hash table entries use
     * WeakReferences for keys. However, since reference queues are not
     * used, stale entries are guaranteed to be removed only when
     * the table starts running out of space.
     */
    static class ThreadLocalMap {

        /**
         * The entries in this hash map extend WeakReference, using
         * its main ref field as the key (which is always a
         * ThreadLocal object).  Note that null keys (i.e. entry.get()
         * == null) mean that the key is no longer referenced, so the
         * entry can be expunged from table.  Such entries are referred to
         * as "stale entries" in the code that follows.
         */
        static class Entry extends WeakReference<ThreadLocal<?>> {
            /** The value associated with this ThreadLocal. */
            Object value;

            Entry(ThreadLocal<?> k, Object v) {
                super(k);
                value = v;
            }
        }

        /**
         * The initial capacity -- MUST be a power of two.
         */
        private static final int INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;

        /**
         * The table, resized as necessary.
         * table.length MUST always be a power of two.
         */
        private Entry[] table;

        /**
         * The number of entries in the table.
         */
        private int size = 0;

        /**
         * The next size value at which to resize.
         */
        private int threshold; // Default to 0

        /**
         * Set the resize threshold to maintain at worst a 2/3 load factor.
         */
        private void setThreshold(int len) {
            threshold = len * 2 / 3;
        }

        /**
         * Increment i modulo len.
         */
        private static int nextIndex(int i, int len) {
            return ((i + 1 < len) ? i + 1 : 0);
        }

        /**
         * Decrement i modulo len.
         */
        private static int prevIndex(int i, int len) {
            return ((i - 1 >= 0) ? i - 1 : len - 1);
        }

        /**
         * Construct a new map initially containing (firstKey, firstValue).
         * ThreadLocalMaps are constructed lazily, so we only create
         * one when we have at least one entry to put in it.
         */
        ThreadLocalMap(ThreadLocal<?> firstKey, Object firstValue) {
            table = new Entry[INITIAL_CAPACITY];
            int i = firstKey.threadLocalHashCode & (INITIAL_CAPACITY - 1);
            table[i] = new Entry(firstKey, firstValue);
            size = 1;
            setThreshold(INITIAL_CAPACITY);
        }

        /**
         * Construct a new map including all Inheritable ThreadLocals
         * from given parent map. Called only by createInheritedMap.
         *
         * @param parentMap the map associated with parent thread.
         */
        private ThreadLocalMap(ThreadLocalMap parentMap) {
            Entry[] parentTable = parentMap.table;
            int len = parentTable.length;
            setThreshold(len);
            table = new Entry[len];

            for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
                Entry e = parentTable[j];
                if (e != null) {
                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                    ThreadLocal<Object> key = (ThreadLocal<Object>) e.get();
                    if (key != null) {
                        Object value = key.childValue(e.value);
                        Entry c = new Entry(key, value);
                        int h = key.threadLocalHashCode & (len - 1);
                        while (table[h] != null)
                            h = nextIndex(h, len);
                        table[h] = c;
                        size++;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        /**
         * Get the entry associated with key.  This method
         * itself handles only the fast path: a direct hit of existing
         * key. It otherwise relays to getEntryAfterMiss.  This is
         * designed to maximize performance for direct hits, in part
         * by making this method readily inlinable.
         *
         * @param  key the thread local object
         * @return the entry associated with key, or null if no such
         */
        private Entry getEntry(ThreadLocal<?> key) {
            int i = key.threadLocalHashCode & (table.length - 1);
            Entry e = table[i];
            if (e != null && e.get() == key)
                return e;
            else
                return getEntryAfterMiss(key, i, e);
        }

        /**
         * Version of getEntry method for use when key is not found in
         * its direct hash slot.
         *
         * @param  key the thread local object
         * @param  i the table index for key's hash code
         * @param  e the entry at table[i]
         * @return the entry associated with key, or null if no such
         */
        private Entry getEntryAfterMiss(ThreadLocal<?> key, int i, Entry e) {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;

            while (e != null) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
                if (k == key)
                    return e;
                if (k == null)
                    expungeStaleEntry(i);
                else
                    i = nextIndex(i, len);
                e = tab[i];
            }
            return null;
        }

        /**
         * Set the value associated with key.
         *
         * @param key the thread local object
         * @param value the value to be set
         */
        private void set(ThreadLocal<?> key, Object value) {

            // We don't use a fast path as with get() because it is at
            // least as common to use set() to create new entries as
            // it is to replace existing ones, in which case, a fast
            // path would fail more often than not.

            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;
            int i = key.threadLocalHashCode & (len-1);

            for (Entry e = tab[i];
                 e != null;
                 e = tab[i = nextIndex(i, len)]) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();

                if (k == key) {
                    e.value = value;
                    return;
                }

                if (k == null) {
                    replaceStaleEntry(key, value, i);
                    return;
                }
            }

            tab[i] = new Entry(key, value);
            int sz = ++size;
            if (!cleanSomeSlots(i, sz) && sz >= threshold)
                rehash();
        }

        /**
         * Remove the entry for key.
         */
        private void remove(ThreadLocal<?> key) {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;
            int i = key.threadLocalHashCode & (len-1);
            for (Entry e = tab[i];
                 e != null;
                 e = tab[i = nextIndex(i, len)]) {
                if (e.get() == key) {
                    e.clear();
                    expungeStaleEntry(i);
                    return;
                }
            }
        }

        /**
         * Replace a stale entry encountered during a set operation
         * with an entry for the specified key.  The value passed in
         * the value parameter is stored in the entry, whether or not
         * an entry already exists for the specified key.
         *
         * As a side effect, this method expunges all stale entries in the
         * "run" containing the stale entry.  (A run is a sequence of entries
         * between two null slots.)
         *
         * @param  key the key
         * @param  value the value to be associated with key
         * @param  staleSlot index of the first stale entry encountered while
         *         searching for key.
         */
        private void replaceStaleEntry(ThreadLocal<?> key, Object value,
                                       int staleSlot) {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;
            Entry e;

            // Back up to check for prior stale entry in current run.
            // We clean out whole runs at a time to avoid continual
            // incremental rehashing due to garbage collector freeing
            // up refs in bunches (i.e., whenever the collector runs).
            int slotToExpunge = staleSlot;
            for (int i = prevIndex(staleSlot, len);
                 (e = tab[i]) != null;
                 i = prevIndex(i, len))
                if (e.get() == null)
                    slotToExpunge = i;

            // Find either the key or trailing null slot of run, whichever
            // occurs first
            for (int i = nextIndex(staleSlot, len);
                 (e = tab[i]) != null;
                 i = nextIndex(i, len)) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();

                // If we find key, then we need to swap it
                // with the stale entry to maintain hash table order.
                // The newly stale slot, or any other stale slot
                // encountered above it, can then be sent to expungeStaleEntry
                // to remove or rehash all of the other entries in run.
                if (k == key) {
                    e.value = value;

                    tab[i] = tab[staleSlot];
                    tab[staleSlot] = e;

                    // Start expunge at preceding stale entry if it exists
                    if (slotToExpunge == staleSlot)
                        slotToExpunge = i;
                    cleanSomeSlots(expungeStaleEntry(slotToExpunge), len);
                    return;
                }

                // If we didn't find stale entry on backward scan, the
                // first stale entry seen while scanning for key is the
                // first still present in the run.
                if (k == null && slotToExpunge == staleSlot)
                    slotToExpunge = i;
            }

            // If key not found, put new entry in stale slot
            tab[staleSlot].value = null;
            tab[staleSlot] = new Entry(key, value);

            // If there are any other stale entries in run, expunge them
            if (slotToExpunge != staleSlot)
                cleanSomeSlots(expungeStaleEntry(slotToExpunge), len);
        }

        /**
         * Expunge a stale entry by rehashing any possibly colliding entries
         * lying between staleSlot and the next null slot.  This also expunges
         * any other stale entries encountered before the trailing null.  See
         * Knuth, Section 6.4
         *
         * @param staleSlot index of slot known to have null key
         * @return the index of the next null slot after staleSlot
         * (all between staleSlot and this slot will have been checked
         * for expunging).
         */
        private int expungeStaleEntry(int staleSlot) {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;

            // expunge entry at staleSlot
            tab[staleSlot].value = null;
            tab[staleSlot] = null;
            size--;

            // Rehash until we encounter null
            Entry e;
            int i;
            for (i = nextIndex(staleSlot, len);
                 (e = tab[i]) != null;
                 i = nextIndex(i, len)) {
                ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
                if (k == null) {
                    e.value = null;
                    tab[i] = null;
                    size--;
                } else {
                    int h = k.threadLocalHashCode & (len - 1);
                    if (h != i) {
                        tab[i] = null;

                        // Unlike Knuth 6.4 Algorithm R, we must scan until
                        // null because multiple entries could have been stale.
                        while (tab[h] != null)
                            h = nextIndex(h, len);
                        tab[h] = e;
                    }
                }
            }
            return i;
        }

        /**
         * Heuristically scan some cells looking for stale entries.
         * This is invoked when either a new element is added, or
         * another stale one has been expunged. It performs a
         * logarithmic number of scans, as a balance between no
         * scanning (fast but retains garbage) and a number of scans
         * proportional to number of elements, that would find all
         * garbage but would cause some insertions to take O(n) time.
         *
         * @param i a position known NOT to hold a stale entry. The
         * scan starts at the element after i.
         *
         * @param n scan control: {@code log2(n)} cells are scanned,
         * unless a stale entry is found, in which case
         * {@code log2(table.length)-1} additional cells are scanned.
         * When called from insertions, this parameter is the number
         * of elements, but when from replaceStaleEntry, it is the
         * table length. (Note: all this could be changed to be either
         * more or less aggressive by weighting n instead of just
         * using straight log n. But this version is simple, fast, and
         * seems to work well.)
         *
         * @return true if any stale entries have been removed.
         */
        private boolean cleanSomeSlots(int i, int n) {
            boolean removed = false;
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;
            do {
                i = nextIndex(i, len);
                Entry e = tab[i];
                if (e != null && e.get() == null) {
                    n = len;
                    removed = true;
                    i = expungeStaleEntry(i);
                }
            } while ( (n >>>= 1) != 0);
            return removed;
        }

        /**
         * Re-pack and/or re-size the table. First scan the entire
         * table removing stale entries. If this doesn't sufficiently
         * shrink the size of the table, double the table size.
         */
        private void rehash() {
            expungeStaleEntries();

            // Use lower threshold for doubling to avoid hysteresis
            if (size >= threshold - threshold / 4)
                resize();
        }

        /**
         * Double the capacity of the table.
         */
        private void resize() {
            Entry[] oldTab = table;
            int oldLen = oldTab.length;
            int newLen = oldLen * 2;
            Entry[] newTab = new Entry[newLen];
            int count = 0;

            for (int j = 0; j < oldLen; ++j) {
                Entry e = oldTab[j];
                if (e != null) {
                    ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
                    if (k == null) {
                        e.value = null; // Help the GC
                    } else {
                        int h = k.threadLocalHashCode & (newLen - 1);
                        while (newTab[h] != null)
                            h = nextIndex(h, newLen);
                        newTab[h] = e;
                        count++;
                    }
                }
            }

            setThreshold(newLen);
            size = count;
            table = newTab;
        }

        /**
         * Expunge all stale entries in the table.
         */
        private void expungeStaleEntries() {
            Entry[] tab = table;
            int len = tab.length;
            for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
                Entry e = tab[j];
                if (e != null && e.get() == null)
                    expungeStaleEntry(j);
            }
        }
    }
}
View Code

ThreadLocal exposes five basic operation and construction methods. Its main functions are: construction method, setting value method, value taking method and resource recovery;

1. Construction method

ThreadLocal is a generic class, which only provides a construction method, through which you can specify the type of value to store; this construction method can be used alone, or with the initialValue method to provide an initial value when instantiating an object.

2. set value method

Set method can be used to save data. Multiple calls to set method will not save multiple data, but will overwrite it. A ThreadLocal can only save one data:

public void set(T value) {
    Thread t = Thread.currentThread();  // Get current thread
    ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t); // Get the ThreadLocalMap
    if (map != null)
        map.set(this, value);  // Existing in thread ThreadLocalMap´╝îSet value
    else
        createMap(t, value);   // Does not exist in thread ThreadLocalMap´╝îSet value after creation
}

3. get

Before using the set method to set a value, the value obtained by calling the get method will be the value set by the initialValue method (null if the method is not overridden). After the set method is called to set the value, the set value is returned.

public T get() {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread(); // Get current thread
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t); // Get the current thread saved ThreadLocalMap
        if (map != null) {
            ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this); // Here comes the this It's the current ThreadLocal Object, get ThreadLocal Corresponding value
            if (e != null) {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                T result = (T)e.value; // Get it ThreadLocal Value of
                return result;
            }
        }
        return setInitialValue(); // call setInitialValue Method returns the initial value
    }

4. Resource recovery remove

When we no longer need to save the data, we should remove the value saved in the current thread through the remove method to get GC (calling the remove method will remove the ThreadLocal object from the ThreadLocalMap of the current thread):

public void remove() {
     ThreadLocalMap m = getMap(Thread.currentThread()); // Get the ThreadLocalMap
     if (m != null) {
        m.remove(this); // from ThreadLocalMap remove key Is current ThreadLocal Object's record
     }
}

Calling remove method will clear the value set by set method. If get method is called again, return setInitialValue() will be executed because the record corresponding to ThreadLocal no longer exists. This code will call initialValue method to return the initial value.

Keywords: less Java Android

Added by PJ droopy pants on Fri, 22 May 2020 08:29:05 +0300