Basic knowledge of JavaScript Chapter 2 - variables and data types

preface❤️ As long as the next day can be expected, today is worth rejoicing ❤️

1, Variable

(1) Variable overview

1.1 what are variables

Vernacular: a variable is a box of things.
Popular: variables are containers for storing data. We get the data through the variable name, and even the data can be modified.

1.2 storage of variables in memory

Essence: a variable is a piece of space applied by a program in memory for storing data.
Similar to our hotel room, a room can be regarded as a variable.

(2) Use of variables

Variables can be used in two steps: 1 Declare variable   2 assignment

2.1 declared variables

The code is shown as follows:

// Declare variable  
var age; // Declare a variable named age  
  • var is a JS keyword used to declare variables (the meaning of variable variable). After the variable is declared with this keyword, the computer will automatically allocate memory space for the variable, which does not need to be managed by the programmer;
  • age is the variable name defined by the programmer. We need to access the allocated space in memory through the variable name;

2.2 assignment

The code is shown as follows:

age = 10; // Assign a value of 10 to this variable
  • =It is used to assign the value on the right to the variable space on the left, which represents the meaning of assignment;
  • Variable value is the value stored in the variable space by the programmer;

2.3 initialization of variables

The code is shown as follows:

var age  = 18;  // The declared variable is assigned 18 at the same time
  • Declaring and assigning a variable is called variable initialization.

(3) Variable syntax extension

3.1 update variables

After a variable is re assigned, its original value will be overwritten, and the value of the variable will be subject to the last assigned value.

The code is shown as follows:

var age = 18;
age = 81;   // The end result is 81 because 18 is covered

3.2 declare multiple variables at the same time

When declaring multiple variables at the same time, you only need to write a var, and the names of multiple variables are separated by English commas.

The code is shown as follows:

var age = 23, name = 'battledao', sex = 'male';

3.3 special cases of declared variables

var age;
Only declaration without assignmentundefined
console.log(age);No declaration, no assignment, direct usereport errors
age = 10;
No declaration, only assignment10

(4) Variable naming convention

  • Consists of letters (A-Za-z), numbers (0-9), underscores () Dollar sign ($), for example: usrage, num01_ name
  • Strictly case sensitive. For example: var App; And var App; Are two variables
  • Cannot start with a number. For example: 18age is wrong
  • Cannot be keyword or reserved word. For example: var, for, while
  • Variable names must be meaningful. For example, MMD and BBD are wrong
  • Follow the hump nomenclature. The first letter is lowercase, and the first letter of the following word needs to be capitalized. For example: myFirstName

😆 Case requirements 😆: Exchange the values of two variables (implementation idea: use a temporary variable as intermediate storage)

The code is shown as follows:

	// js is a programming language with strong logic: the idea of realizing this requirement is how to do it first and then how to do it 
    // 1. We need a temporary variable to help us
    // 2. Give us the temporary variable temp from apple1 
    // 3. Give the apple in apple2 to apple1 
    // 4. Give the value in the temporary variable to apple2 
    var temp; // A temporary variable was declared null
    var apple1 = 'green apple';
    var apple2 = 'Red apple';
    temp = apple1; // Give the right to the left
    apple1 = apple2;
    apple2 = temp;

2, Data type

(1) Introduction to data types

1.1 why do you need data types

one ️⃣ In the computer, the storage space occupied by different data is different. In order to divide the data into data with different memory sizes and make full use of the storage space, different data types are defined.
two ️⃣ Simply put, data type is the category and model of data. For example, the name "Zhang San" and age are 18. The types of these data are different.

1.2 data types of variables

Variables are where values are stored. They have names and data types. The data type of the variable determines how the bits representing these values are stored in the computer's memory.
JavaScript is a weakly typed or dynamic language. This means that there is no need to declare the type of variable in advance, and the type will be determined automatically during the operation of the program.

The code is shown as follows:

var age = 10;  // This is a numeric type
var areYouOk = 'yes';   // This is a string

When the code is running, the data type of the variable is determined by the JS engine according to the data type of the variable value on the right. After running, the variable determines the data type.
JavaScript has dynamic types, which also means that the same variables can be used as different types:

The code is shown as follows:

var x = 6;           // x is a number
var x = "Bill";      // x is a string

1.3 classification of data types

JS divides data types into two categories:

  • Simple data type (Number,String,Boolean,Undefined,Null)
  • Complex data type (object)

(2) Simple data type

2.1 simple data type (basic data type)

Simple data types in JavaScript and their descriptions are as follows:

Simple data typeexplainDefault value
NumberNumeric type, including integer value and floating-point value, such as 30 and 0.350
BooleanBoolean valuefalse
StringString type, such as "library". Note that in js, strings are quoted" "
Undefinedvar a; Variable a is declared, but no value is given. At this time, a = undefinedundefined
Nullvar a = null; Declared that variable a is nullnull

2.2 digital Number

The JavaScript number type can be used to hold both integer values and decimals (floating point numbers).

The code is shown as follows:

var age = 21;       // integer
var Age = 21.3747;  // decimal
2.2.1 digital hexadecimal

Binary and hexadecimal are the most common.

The code is shown as follows:

// 1. Octal digit sequence range: 0 ~ 7
var num1 = 07;   // Corresponding to decimal 7
var num2 = 012;  // 10 corresponding to decimal
var num3 = 017;   // 15 corresponding to decimal
// 2. Hexadecimal digit sequence range: 0 ~ 9 and A~F
var num = 0xA;   // 10 corresponding to decimal

At this stage, we only need to remember: add 0 before octal and 0x before hexadecimal in JS;

2.2.2 digital range

Maximum and minimum values of values in JavaScript:

// 1. Maximum value of digital type
console.log(Number.MAX_VALUE);  // 1.7976931348623157e+308
// 2. Minimum value of digital type
console.log(Number.MIN_VALUE);  // 5e-324
  • Maximum value: number MAX_ Value: 1.7976931348623157e+308
  • Minimum value: number MIN_ Value: 5e-324
2.2.3 three special values of digital type
// 1. Infinity
console.log(Number.MAX_VALUE * 2); // Infinity infinity  
// 2. Infinitesimal
console.log(-Number.MAX_VALUE * 2); // -Infinity infinity
// 3. Non numeric
console.log('Curry' - 100); // NaN
  • Infinity, representing infinity, greater than any value;
  • -Infinity, representing infinitesimal, less than any value;
  • NaN, Not a number, represents a non numeric value;
2.2.4 isNaN()

It is used to judge whether a variable is of non numeric type and return true or false;

The code is shown as follows:

var userAge = 21;
var isOk = isNaN(userAge);
console.log(isOk);            // false, 21 is not a non number
var userName = "andy";
console.log(isNaN(userName));  // true, "andy" is a non number

2.3 String type String

String type can be any text in quotation marks, and its syntax is double quotation mark "" and single quotation mark '

The code is shown as follows:

var strMsg = "My idol is curry";  // Use double quotation marks to represent strings
var strMsg2 = 'My idol is curry';    // Use single quotation marks to represent strings
// Common errors
var strMsg3 = My idol is curry;       // If an error is reported and quotation marks are not used, it will be considered as js code, but js does not have these syntax

Because the attributes in HTML tags use double quotation marks, we prefer to use single quotation marks in JS.

2.3.1 string quotation mark nesting

JS can nest double quotation marks with single quotation marks, or nest single quotation marks with double quotation marks (outer double inner single, outer single inner double)

The code is shown as follows:

var strMsg = 'I am"Gao Shuaifu"Cheng xuape';   // You can include '' with ''
var strMsg2 = "I am'Gao Shuaifu'Cheng xuape";  // You can also include '' with ''
//  Common errors
var badQuotes = 'What on earth?"; // Error reporting, cannot match single and double quotation marks
2.3.2 string escape character

Similar to the special characters in HTML, there are also special characters in the string, which we call escape characters.
Escape characters start with \. Common escape characters and their descriptions are as follows:

Escape characterinterpretative statement
\nNewline, n means newline
\ \Slash\
\ '’Single quotation mark
\ "”Double quotation mark
\ ttab indent
\ bb means blank
2.3.3 string length

A string is composed of several characters. The number of these characters is the length of the string. The length of the whole string can be obtained through the length attribute of the string.

// Detects the length of the obtained string 
var str = 'my name is battledao';
console.log(str.length); // 20
2.3.4 string splicing

one ️⃣ Multiple strings can be spliced with + in the form of string + any type = new string after splicing;
two ️⃣ Before splicing, any type added with the string will be converted into a string, and then spliced into a new string;

The code is shown as follows:

//1.1 string "addition"
alert('hello' + ' ' + 'world'); // hello world
//1.2 numeric string "addition"
alert('100' + '100'); // 100100
//1.3 numeric string + numeric value
alert('11' + 12);    // 1112

😆+ No. summary formula 😆: Numerical values are added and characters are connected;

2.3.5 string splicing reinforcement
console.log('My age is' + 18);           // As long as there are characters, they will be connected 
var age = 18;
// console.log('My age is age ')// That won't work
console.log('My age is' + age);          // My age is 18
console.log('My age is' + age + 'Years old');  // My age is 18
  • We often splice strings and variables, because variables can easily modify their values;
  • Variables cannot be quoted, because quoted variables will become strings;
  • If there is string splicing on both sides of the variable, the formula "quote plus", delete the number, and write the variable in the middle;

2.4 Boolean

Boolean type has two values: true and false, where true represents true (right) and false represents false (wrong);
When Boolean and numeric types are added, the value of true is 1 and the value of false is 0;

The code is shown as follows:

console.log(true + 1);  // 2
console.log(false + 1); // 1

2.5 Undefined and Null

one ️⃣ A variable that has not been assigned a value after declaration will have a default value of undefined (pay attention to the result when connecting or adding)
The code is shown as follows:

var variable;
console.log(variable);           // undefined
console.log('Hello' + variable);  // Hello, undefined
console.log(11 + variable);     // NaN
console.log(true + variable);   //  NaN

two ️⃣ A declared variable is given a null value, and the value stored in it is null (I will continue to explain null when explaining the object)
The code is shown as follows:

var vari = null;
console.log('Hello' + vari);  // Hello, null
console.log(11 + vari);     // 11
console.log(true + vari);   //  1

(3) Get variable data type

3.1 get the data type of the detection variable

typeof can be used to obtain the data type of the detected variable;

var num = 18;
console.log(typeof num) // Result number
Stringtypeof "curry""string"
Numbertypeof 18"number"
Undefinedtypeof undefined"undefined"
Nulltypeof null"object"

3.2 literal quantity

Literal quantity is the representation of a fixed value in the source code. Generally speaking, it means how to express this value.

  • Number literal: 8, 9, 10
  • String literal: 'Stephen curry', 'a silent struggle program ape'
  • Boolean literal: true, false

(4) Data type conversion

4.1 what is data type conversion

The data obtained by using the form and prompt is of string type by default. At this time, you can't simply add directly, but need to convert the data type of the variable. Generally speaking, it is to convert a variable of one data type into another data type.

We usually realize the conversion in three ways:

  • Convert to string type
  • Convert to digital
  • Convert to Boolean

4.2 convert to string

toString()Convert to stringvar num = 10;
var str = num.toString();
String() castConvert to stringvar num = 10;
Plus concatenated stringAnd string splicing results are stringsvar num = 10;
console.log(num + ' ');
  • toString() and String() are used differently;
  • Among the three conversion methods, we prefer to use the third plus sign splicing string conversion method, which is also called implicit conversion;

4.3 conversion to digital type (key)

parseInt(string) functionConvert string type to integer numeric typeparseInt('78')
parseFloat(string) functionConvert string type to floating-point numeric typeparseFloat('78.21')
Number() cast functionConvert string type to numeric typeNumber('30')
js implicit conversion (- * /)Implicit conversion to numerical type by arithmetic operation'30' - 0
  • Pay attention to the case of parseInt and parseFloat words, which are the key points;
  • Implicit conversion is that JS automatically converts the data type when we perform arithmetic operations;

4.4 convert to Boolean

Boolean() functionConvert other types to BooleansBoolean('true');
  • Values representing null and negative will be converted to false, such as' ', 0, NaN, null, undefined;
  • Other values will be converted to true;

The code is shown as follows:

console.log(Boolean('')); // false
console.log(Boolean(0)); // false
console.log(Boolean(NaN)); // false
console.log(Boolean(null)); // false
console.log(Boolean(undefined)); // false
console.log(Boolean('Xiaobai')); // true
console.log(Boolean(12)); // true

3, JS case study

JS case: ask and obtain the user's name, age and gender in turn, and print the user information;

The complete code is demonstrated as follows:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>JS case</title>
        //Case: ask and obtain the user's name, age and gender at one time, and print the user information
        var name = prompt('Please enter your name');
        var age = prompt('Please enter your age');
        var sex = prompt('Please enter your gender');
        alert("Your name is:" + name + '\n' + "What is your age:" + age + '\n' + "What is your age:" + sex);

4, Summary

😝 Because there are many contents, I decided to write separately. I will keep updating! Like friends, remember to praise! 😝

Keywords: Javascript Front-end ECMAScript Visual Studio Code

Added by ronthu on Thu, 17 Feb 2022 03:15:46 +0200