From zero, learn Python 3 one function together

Today, let's talk about functions in python. There are a lot of things to pay attention to, sort them out slowly.

First, let's see what python's functions look like?


# Define a function
def my_func(a):
    a += 1
    return a

Notice that def is used at the beginning of the function instead of the function in other languages. There is a colon at the end of the first line. Then, notice that there is no {} bracket in the function type. How can python judge whether the statement belongs to this function? It is judged by indentation, so pay attention to indentation when writing.

The specific contents of this function are not detailed here, but will be discussed later.


# Calling function

The call is very simple.

However, it should be noted that if the number of parameters is wrong, an error will be reported during operation.

Return value

The return value can be one, multiple, or none.

When the return value is 1, it doesn't need to be mentioned. The situation of multiple return values is as follows:

# Multiple return values
def my_multy(x):
    y = x+1
    z = x-1
    return y,z

r = my_multy(3)

The results of the implementation are:

(4, 2)

In other words, when multiple values are returned, they are actually returned in the form of tuple, or tuple.

What if you don't write the return value?

# Do not write return value
def none_return():
x = none_return()

The results of the implementation are:


In other words, if you don't write the return value, it will return None by default. Of course, you can return None manually


This one is the most complex, with many things, but it is very important.

Position parameter

Location parameter is the most common parameter we encounter. When calling, the number must be the same as the number of defined parameters, otherwise an error will be reported. This is relatively simple. There is nothing to say.

Default parameters

The default parameter is to set a default value for the parameter when defining the function. If the parameter is not given when calling the function, the function will automatically call the default value, such as:

# Default parameters
def default_param(a,b=3):
    return a + b
x = default_param(1)

The results of the implementation are:


Here we extend a concept, variable parameter and immutable parameter

Variable parameters are: list, set, dictionary

Immutable parameters are: number, string, tuple

The default parameter must be immutable! If you use variable parameters, there will be problems, such as:

def add_end(L=[]):
    return L

The result is:


The reason is that when the function is defined, the value of the default parameter has been calculated, and a point has been given. The point is constant, but the content of the point has been changing

Variable parameters

Variable parameters allow you to pass in 0 or any parameters, which are automatically assembled into a tuple when a function is called



# Variable parameters
def calc(*numbers):
    sum = 0
    for n in numbers:
        sum = sum + n * n
    return sum




a = [1,2,3]


a = (1,2,3)


Key parameters

Keyword parameter allows you to pass in 0 or any parameter with parameter name. These keyword parameters are automatically assembled into a dict within the function



# Key parameters
def person(name, age, **kw):
    print('name:', name, 'age:', age, 'other:', kw)


a = {'weight':130,'height':175}



Execution result:


Named key parameters

If you want to restrict the names of key parameters, you can use named key parameters, for example, only city and job are accepted as key parameters. The functions defined in this way are as follows:


# Named key parameters
def person2(name, age, *, city, job):
    print(name, age, city, job)

Call: key parameters can only be city and job


person2('Jack', 24, city='Beijing', job='Engineer')


b = {'city':'Beijing', 'job':'Engineer'}
person2('Jack', 24, **b)

Order of parameter combination

The order of parameter definition must be: required parameter, default parameter, variable parameter, named key parameter and key parameter

For example:

def f1(a, b, c=0, *args, **kw):
    print('a =', a, 'b =', b, 'c =', c, 'args =', args, 'kw =', kw)

def f2(a, b, c=0, *, d, **kw):
    print('a =', a, 'b =', b, 'c =', c, 'd =', d, 'kw =', kw)

Be careful:

For any function, it can be called in the form of func(*args, **kw), no matter how its parameters are defined, such as:

def f1(a, b, c=0, *args, **kw):
    print('a =', a, 'b =', b, 'c =', c, 'args =', args, 'kw =', kw)

def f2(a, b, c=0, *, d, **kw):
    print('a =', a, 'b =', b, 'c =', c, 'd =', d, 'kw =', kw)
def f3(a, b, c=0):
    print('a =', a, 'b =', b, 'c =', c)

a = (1,2,3)
b = {'name':'sun','weight':130}
c = {'d':8,'name':'sun','weight':130}

The execution result is:



Examples of built-in functions

python has a lot of built-in functions, so let's remember when we encounter them.

Finding absolute value function

# Finding absolute value function
print(abs(10)) #10
print(abs(-28)) #28

Find the maximum function

# Find the maximum function
print(max(1,-3,10)) #10

Data type conversion function

# Data type conversion function
print(int('1111')) #1111
print(str(12.3)) #'12.3'
print(bool(1)) #True

Keywords: Python

Added by sujata_ghosh on Tue, 03 Mar 2020 12:59:08 +0200