Go language - basic grammar


package main // Define package name
func main() {

main function points

  • ++No parameter, no return value++
  • The main method must be in the main package
  • go run main.go can be executed
  • If the file is not called main Go, you need to go build and then go run

Package declaration - package declaration

  • Syntax form: package xxx
  • Combination of letters and underscores
  • ++Can have a different name from the folder++
  • The statements under the same folder are consistent
  • Syntax form of import package: import [alias] xxx
  • If the package is imported but not used, an error will be reported
  • Anonymous introduction: one more underline in front

Basic type


  • String enclosed in double quotation marks, "escape"
  • Use back quotation marks to enclose a large paragraph of text (which needs to be wrapped), and there is no need to escape the double quotation marks inside
    goland will help escape, okay
  • len() calculates the byte length
    len("hello") / / = 6
    Calculation length: utf8 Runecountinstring ("hello") / / 2
  • Main methods of strings: find and replace; Case conversion; Substring correlation; equal

rune type

The intuitive understanding of rune type is: character
Run is not byte
The essence of rune is int32. A rune has four bytes
There is no char in go, only rune
Run is not a number, nor a char, nor a byte!
(but not commonly used in practice)


  • bool: true,false
  • int8,int16,int32,int54,++int++
  • Unit8, Unit16, unit32, unit64, + unit + + (unsigned number)
  • float32,float64

byte type

++byte is essentially unit8++
The corresponding operation package is on bytes

Type summary

  • The number type of golang clearly indicates the length and signed number
  • golang won't do type conversion for you. Different types cannot be compiled. Therefore, + + string can only be spliced with string++
  • golang has a very special rune type, which is close to the concept of character or character in general language. In the case of + + non interview, it can be understood as "rune = character"++
  • string never find the strings package

Variable declaration

Variable declaration var

  • var, syntax: var name type=value
  • Whether a global variable or a package variable is determined by the case of the initial letter
    For example:
    var Global = "global variable" / / Global is capitalized and can be accessed globally
    var local = "package variable" / / the initial letter is lowercase. It can only be used in this package, and sub packages cannot be used
var (                  //Block declaration
    First string ="abc"
    second int32 = 16

golang is a strongly typed language with inconsistent types = = unequal judgment

Variable declaration:=

  • It can only be used for local variables, that is, inside methods
  • golang uses type inference to infer types. Numbers will be interpreted as int or float64. (therefore, other types of numbers have to be declared with var
func main(){

Variable declaration fallibility

  • The variable is declared unused: like import, if it is not used, the compilation will not pass
  • type mismatch
  • Variables can only be declared once under the same scope

Constant declaration const

  • Whether the initial capital controls accessibility: capital package
  • Hump naming
  • Support type inference
  • The value cannot be modified
const internal = "Accessible in package"
const External = "Accessible outside the package"

Method declaration

Four parts:

  • Keyword func
  • Method name: whether the initial letter is capitalized determines the scope
  • Parameter list []
  • Return to list []

Go supports multiple return values
Multiple return values. The parameter has a name, but the return value does not:

func Fun1(a string, b int) (int, string){
    return 0,"Hello"

The returned value has a name, which can be copied internally and then returned. You can also ignore age and name and directly return others:

func Fun2(a string, b int) (age int, name string){
    name="Tom" <

Single return value

func Fun0(a string) string{
    return "Hello, "+name

Indefinite parameter - slice (later)
_,d :=Fun2(a:"a",b:"b")
Underline_ Anonymous

  • golang supports multiple return values, which is a big difference
  • The scope of golang method is the same as that of variable, which is controlled by case
  • The return value of golang can have a name. By giving a name, the caller can clearly know what you are returning

The simplest web server

package main // Define package name
import (

func handler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Hi there, Ilove %s!", r.URL.Path[1:])
func main() {
	http.HandleFunc("/", handler)
	log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8088", nil))

Add several routes

func home(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request){
    fmt.Fprintf(w,"This is the home page")

func user(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request){
    fmt.Fprintf(w,"This is the user")

func main(){
    log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8088", nil))

fmt formatted output

API to return string
str:=fmt.Sprintf("hello,I am %s",name)
Direct output
fmt.Printf("hello,i am %s",name)


  • %s string% d integer
  • %The default format for the v value. When printing a structure, the plus sign mark (% + v) adds a field name
  • %#Go syntax representation of v corresponding value
  • %The syntax value of Go T represents the corresponding type
  • %%A percent sign on a letter is not a placeholder for a value
package main
import (
type Sample struct {
	a   int
	str string
func main() {
	s := Sample{a: 1, str: "hello"}
	fmt.Printf("%v\n", s)   //{1, hello}
	fmt.Printf("%+v\n", s)  //{a:1, str:hello}
	fmt.Printf("%#v\n", s)  //main.Sample{a:1, str:"hello"}
	fmt.Printf("%T\n", s)   // main.Sample
	fmt.Printf("%%\n", s.a) // %  %!(EXTRA int=1)

Arrays and slices

Arrays are similar to arrays in other languages. The syntax is: [cap]type

  1. Initialize the length (capacity) to be specified
  2. Direct initialization
  3. Accessing elements in the form of arr[i]
  4. len and cap operations are used to get the length of the array
package main // Define package name
import "fmt"

func main() {
	//Directly initialize an array of three elements. One more or one less in braces will not pass the compilation
	a1 := [3]int{9, 8, 7}
	fmt.Printf("a1: %v, len: %d, cap: %d\n", a1, len(a1), cap(a1))

	//Initializes an array of three elements, all of which are 0
	var a2 [3]int
	fmt.Printf("a2: %v, len: %d,cap: %d\n", a2, len(a2), cap(a2))

	//a1=append(a1,a2) array does not support append operation

	//Index by subscript
	fmt.Printf("a1[1]:%d", a1[1])
	//Beyond the subscript range, crash directly and fail to compile
	//fmt.Printf("a1[99]: %d",a1[99])

The results are as follows:

a1: [9 8 7], len: 3, cap: 3
a2: [0 0 0], len: 3,cap: 3

Slice, syntax: [] type

  1. Direct initialization
  2. Make initialization: make([]type, length, capacity)
  3. Accessing elements in the form of arr[i]
  4. Append append element
  5. len get the number of elements
  6. Get slice capacity from cap
  7. Recommended writing method: S1: = make ([] type, 0, capacity)
package main 
import "fmt"

func main() {
	s1 := []int{1, 2, 3, 4} //Directly initializes the slice of 4 elements
	fmt.Printf("s1: %v, len: %d, cap: %d\n", s1, len(s1), cap(s1))
	s2 := make([]int, 3, 4) //A slice with three elements and a capacity of 4 is created
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v, len: %d, cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))
	s2 = append(s2, 7) //An element is added in the back, which does not exceed the capacity limit and will not be expanded
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v, len: %d, cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))
	s2 = append(s2, 8) //Add an element to trigger capacity expansion
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v, len: %d, cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))
	s3 := make([]int, 4) //Only one parameter is passed in, which means to create a with four elements and a capacity of four elements
	fmt.Printf("s3: %v, len: %d, cap: %d\n", s3, len(s3), cap(s3))
	//Index by subscript
	fmt.Printf("s3[2]: %d", s3[2])
	//Out of subscript range, crash directly
	//runtime error: index out of range[99] with length 4

The results are as follows:

s1: [1 2 3 4], len: 4, cap: 4
s2: [0 0 0], len: 3, cap: 4    
s2: [0 0 0 7], len: 4, cap: 4  
s2: [0 0 0 7 8], len: 5, cap: 8
s3: [0 0 0 0], len: 4, cap: 4  
s3[2]: 0   
Direct initializationsupportsupport
makeI won't support itsupport
Access elementarr[i]arr[i]
lenlengthNumber of existing elements
appendI won't support itsupport
Can I expand the capacitymay notsure

There is almost no error with slicing

Sub slice

Both arrays and slices can obtain sub slices in the form of [start:end]:

  1. arr[start:end], get the elements between [start, end]
  2. arr[:end], get the elements between [0, end]
  3. arr[start:], get the elements between [start,len(arr)]
    Left close right open principle

How to understand slicing
The most intuitive comparison: ArrayList, that is, the implementation of List based on array, and the bottom layer of slice is also array
Difference from ArrayList:

  1. Slicing operations are limited, and random addition and deletion are not supported (i.e. there are no add and delete methods, so you need to write your own code)
  2. Only append operation
  3. Slicing supports sub slicing and shares the underlying array with the original slicing

Shared bottom layer (optional)

Core: shared array
Whether sub slices and slices will affect each other or not, we can grasp one point: do they still share arrays?
If there is no change in their structure, they must be shared; But when the structure changes, it may not be shared

package main

import "fmt"

func ShareSlice() {
	s1 := []int{1, 2, 3, 4}
	s2 := s1[2:]
	fmt.Printf("s1: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s1, len(s1), cap(s1))
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))

	s2[0] = 99
	fmt.Printf("s1: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s1, len(s1), cap(s1))
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))

	s2 = append(s2, 199)
	fmt.Printf("s1: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s1, len(s1), cap(s1))
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))

	s2[1] = 1999
	fmt.Printf("s1: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s1, len(s1), cap(s1))
	fmt.Printf("s2: %v,len: %d,cap: %d\n", s2, len(s2), cap(s2))
func main() {

The results are as follows:

s1: [1 2 3 4],len: 4,cap: 4
s2: [3 4],len: 2,cap: 2        
s1: [1 2 99 4],len: 4,cap: 4   
s2: [99 4],len: 2,cap: 2       
s1: [1 2 99 4],len: 4,cap: 4   
s2: [99 4 199],len: 3,cap: 4   
s1: [1 2 99 4],len: 4,cap: 4   
s2: [99 1999 199],len: 3,cap: 4


for is similar to other grammars in three forms:

  1. for {}, an infinite loop similar to while
func ForLoop() {
	arr := []int{9, 8, 7, 6}
	index := 0
	for {
		if index == 3 {
		fmt.Printf("%d=>%d,", index, arr[index])
	fmt.Printf("for loop end\n")
  1. fori, which generally circulates according to the subscript
func ForI() {
	arr := []int{9, 8, 7, 6}
	for i := 0; i < len(arr); i++ {
		fmt.Printf("%d=>%d,", i, arr[i])
	fmt.Printf("for i loop end\n")
  1. for range is the most special range traversal
func ForR() {
	arr := []int{9, 8, 7, 6}
	//If you only need value, you can use_ Replace index
	//If you only need index, you can also remove it and write it as for index:=range arr
	for index, value := range arr {
		fmt.Printf("%d=>%d,", index, value)
	fmt.Printf("for r loop end")
  1. break and continue are the same as other languages


If else is similar to other languages
if condition{...}
else if condition{...}
If else with local variable declaration:

func IfUsingNewVariable(start int, end int) {
	if distance := end - start; distance > 100 {
		fmt.Printf("Too far away:%d\n", distance)
	} else {
		// else branches can also be absent
		fmt.Printf("Not far away:%d\n",distance)
	//distance cannot be accessed here
  1. distance can only be used in if blocks or all subsequent else blocks
  2. Without the if else block, it can no longer be used


switch is similar to other languages
switch can be followed by a string of basic type or a structure that meets specific conditions
The biggest difference: don't add break!

func ChooseFruit(fruit string) {
	switch fruit {
	case "Apple":
		fmt.Println("This is an apple")
	case "strawberry", "Blueberry":
		fmt.Println("This is a berry")
		fmt.Printf("New fruit:%s\n", fruit)

Keywords: Go Back-end

Added by rohithreddyk on Mon, 07 Feb 2022 10:58:54 +0200