Kubernetes cluster installation

1, Environmental preparation

1. Check the operating system version (version above 7.5 is recommended)

cat /etc/redhat-release

2. For host name resolution, in order to facilitate direct calls between cluster nodes, add the following information in the / etc/hosts file master node1 node2

After configuration, use ping naming to check whether the configuration is correct

ping master

3. Time synchronization

kubernetes requires that the time of nodes in the cluster must be accurate and consistent. Here, the chronyd service is directly used to synchronize the time from the network

#Start the chronyd service
systemctl start chronyd
#Set the startup of the chronyd service
systemctl enable chronyd

Use the date command to check whether the time is synchronized, and the results are consistent

4. Disable iptables and firewalld services

kubernetes and docker will generate a large number of iptables rules during operation. In order not to confuse the system rules with them, close the firewall of the system directly

#Turn off firewalld service
systemctl stop firewalld
#Disable firewalld service startup
systemctl disable firewalld
#Close iptables service
systemctl stop iptables
#Disable iptables service startup
systemctl disable iptables

5. Disable selinux

selinux is a security service of linux system. It will cause various problems if it is not closed

Edit the / etc/selinux/config file, change the value of SELINUX to disabled, and restart the linux service after modification

 6. Disable swap partition

swap partition refers to virtual memory partition. Its function is to convert disk space into virtual memory after physical memory is used up.

Starting the swap device will have a very negative impact on the system performance, so kubernetes requires that each node disable the swap partition.

Edit / etc/fstab and comment out the swap partition line

7. Modify linux kernel parameters

Edit / etc / sysctl d/kubernetes. Conf file, add the following configuration

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.ipv4.ip.forward = 1

Reload configuration

sysctl -p

Load bridge filter module

modprobe br_netfilter

Check whether the bridge filter module is loaded successfully

lsmod | grep br_netfilter

8. Configure ipvs function

In kubernetes, service has two proxy models, one based on iptables and the other based on ipvs. Compared with the two, the performance of ipvs is obviously higher, but if you want to use it, you need to load the ipvs module manually

Install ipset and ipvsadm

yum install ipset ipvsadmin -y
#If you are prompted with No package ipvsadmin available Need to use
yum install ipvsadm

Add the modules to be loaded and write to the script file / etc / sysconfig / modules / IPVS modules

modprobe -- ip_vs
modprobe -- ip_vs_rr
modprobe -- ip_vs_wrr
modprobe -- ip_vs_sh
modprobe -- nf_conntrack_ipv4

Add script file execution permission

chmod +x /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules

Execute script file

/bin/bash /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules

Check whether the module is loaded successfully

lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack_ipv4

 9. Restart the server


10. Check whether the configuration is effective

Are selinux and swap both disabled

#Viewing selinux status
#View memory usage
free -m

II. Installation of components (docker, kubedm, kubelet, kubectl)

1. Installation of docker

#Switch mirror source
wget https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo -O /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo
#View the supported docker versions in the current image
yum list docker-ce --showduplicates
#Install the specified version of docker CE
yum install --setopt=obsoletes=0 docker-ce-18.06.3.ce-3.el7 -y
#Add docker's configuration file / etc / docker / daemon json
    "exec-opts" : ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"],
    "registry-mirrors" : ["http://kn0t2bca.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
#Start docker
systemctl start docker
#Set docker to start automatically
systemctl enable docker

2. Install kubernetes components

#Switch domestic image source
#Edit / etc / yum.com repos. d/kubernetes. Repo, add the following configuration
gpgkey=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg

#Install kubedm, kubelet, kubectl
yum install --setopt=obsoletes=0 kubeadm-1.17.4-0 kubelet-1.17.4-0 kubectl-1.17.4-0 -y

#Configure cgroup of kubelet
#Edit / etc/sysconfig/kubelet and add the following configuration

#Set startup and self startup
systemctl enable kubelet

3. Prepare cluster image

3.1 view the required image name and version

kubeadm config images list

3.2 due to network reasons, you need to download the image from the alicloud image warehouse first, and then rename the image name

Script file (k8simages.sh)


for imageName in ${images[@]} ; do
    docker pull registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/$imageName
    docker tag registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/$imageName k8s.gcr.io/$imageName
    docker rmi registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/$imageName

Increase the execution permission of script file

chmod +x k8simages.sh 

Execute script


View the image after pulling

docker images

4. Cluster initialization (just execute on the master node)

--The value of apiserver advertisement address is the ip address of your master node

kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=v1.17.4 \
 --pod-network-cidr= \
 --service-cidr= \

The following prompt will be given after completion

4.1 create necessary documents

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

4.2 join the node node to the cluster (execute the command at the node according to the prompt)

kubeadm join --token k0rvxt.rejwm1apuipgoi71 \
     --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:f202c7c57bad77f660ddffd2c827d10532ea77ce3347d629424a1e9e27d689fe 

Results after adding

4.3 installation of network plug-in flannel (only in the master node)

#Get flannel
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
#Start flannel using the configuration file
kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml

4.4 viewing cluster status

kubectl get nodes

All three are in Ready status, indicating success

#If the status is NotReady for a long time, you need to modify / var / lib / kubelet / kubedm flags Env, delete -- Network plugin = CNI
vim /var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart kubelet

View the status of all pod s

kubectl get pods --all-namespaces

The installation of Kubernetes cluster is ok. Go and have a try!

Keywords: Kubernetes

Added by whitelion on Wed, 05 Jan 2022 14:28:10 +0200