Linux common commands


Linux common commands

1, Basic command

1.1 shutdown and restart

Shut down
    shutdown -h now        Turn it off immediately
    shutdown -h 5        5 Shutdown in minutes
    poweroff            Turn it off immediately
    shutdown -r now        Restart now 
    shutdown -r 5        5 Restart in minutes
    reboot                Restart now 

1.2 help command

--help command
  shutdown --help: 
  ifconfig  --help: View network card information

man Command (instruction manual) 
  man shutdown
  be careful: man shutdown After opening the command manual, use the key q sign out

2, Directory operation command

2.1 directory switching cd

Command: cd catalogue

cd /        Switch to the root directory
cd /usr        Switch to under the root directory usr catalogue
cd ../        Switch to the previous directory or  cd ..
cd ~        Switch to home catalogue
cd -        Switch to the last accessed directory

2.2 directory view ls [-al]

Command: ls [-al]

ls                View all directories and files in the current directory
ls -a             View all directories and files in the current directory (including hidden files)
ls -l or ll    	  List view all directories and files under the current directory (list view, display more information)
ls /dir           View all directories and files in the specified directory, such as: ls /usr

2.3 directory operation [add, delete, modify, query]

2.3.1 create directory [add] mkdir

Command: mkdir catalogue

mkdir    aaa            Create a file named aaa Directory of
mkdir    /usr/aaa    Create a file named aaa Directory of

2.3.2 delete directory or file [delete] rm

Command: rm [-rf] catalogue

Delete file:
rm file        Delete files in the current directory
rm -f file     Delete files in the current directory (don't ask)

Delete directory:
rm -r aaa     Recursively delete files under the current directory aaa catalogue
rm -rf aaa    Recursively delete files under the current directory aaa Directory (no inquiry)

Delete all:
rm -rf *      Delete all directories and files in the current directory
rm -rf /*    [Suicide order! Use with caution! Use with caution! Use with caution!] Delete all files in the root directory

be careful: rm You can not only delete directories, but also delete other files or compressed packages. In order to facilitate everyone's memory, you can use them directly regardless of deleting any directories or files rm -rf catalogue/file/Compressed package

2.3.3 directory modification [modification] mv and cp

1, Rename directory
    Command: mv Current directory new directory
    For example: mv aaa bbb    Will directory aaa Change to bbb
    be careful: mv You can not only rename directories, but also rename compressed files

2, Cut directory
    Command: mv Directory name the new location of the directory
    Example: will/usr/tmp Directory aaa Cut directory to /usr Under the directory     mv /usr/tmp/aaa /usr
    be careful: mv Syntax can cut not only directories, but also files and compressed packages

3, Copy directory
    Command: cp -r Directory name the destination of the directory copy   -r Represents recursion
    Example: will/usr/tmp Directory aaa Copy to directory /usr Under the directory     cp /usr/tmp/aaa  /usr
    be careful: cp The command can not only copy directories, but also copy files, compressed packages, etc. when copying files and compressed packages, it is not necessary    Write with-r recursion

2.3.4 search directory [search] find

Command: find Directory parameter file name
 Example: find /usr/tmp -name 'a*'    lookup/usr/tmp All in the directory a Directory or file at the beginning

3, File operation command

3.1 document operation [add, delete, modify, check]

3.1.1 create a new file [add] touch

Command: touch file name
 Example: create a directory named aa.txt Documents        touch  aa.txt

3.1.2 delete file [delete] rm

Command: rm -rf file name

3.1.3 modify the document [change] vi or vim

[vi Three modes of editor]
    Basically vi It can be divided into three states: command mode( command mode),Insert mode( Insert mode)And bottom line mode( last line mode),The functions of each mode are distinguished as follows:
1) Command line mode command mode)
      Control the movement of the screen cursor, the deletion of characters, words or lines, search, move, copy a certain section and enter Insert mode Down, or to last line mode. 
      Common commands in command line mode:
      [1]Control cursor movement:↑,↓,j
      [2]Delete current row: dd 
      [4]Enter edit mode: i o a
      [5]Enter bottom line mode::
2) Edit mode( Insert mode)
      Only in Insert mode To enter text, press「ESC」Key to return to command line mode.
      Common commands in edit mode:
      [1]ESC Exit editing mode to command line mode;
3) Bottom row mode( last line mode)
     Save or exit the file vi,You can also set the editing environment, such as looking for strings, listing line numbers, etc.
     Common commands in bottom line mode:
     [1]Exit editing:   :q
     [2]Forced exit:   :q!
     [3]Save and exit:  :wq

Open file

Command: vi file name
 Example: open the in the current directory aa.txt file     vi aa.txt perhaps vim aa.txt

Note: use vi After the editor opens the file, it cannot be edited because it is in command mode. Click the keyboard i/a/o Enter edit mode.

Edit file

use vi After the editor opens the file, click the key: i ,a perhaps o You can enter the editing mode.

i:Start insertion before the character of the cursor
a:Insert after the character of the cursor
o:Insert a new line below the line where the cursor is located

Save or cancel editing

Save file:

Step 1: ESC  Enter command line mode
 Step 2::     Enter bottom line mode
 Step 3: wq     Save and exit editing

Cancel editing:

Step 1: ESC  Enter command line mode
 Step 2::     Enter bottom line mode
 Step 3: q!     Undo this modification and exit editing

3.1.4 document viewing [ check ]

File view command: cat/more/less/tailcat: Look at the last screen example: Using cat see/etc/sudo.conf File, only the last screen can be displayed cat sudo.confmore: Example of percentage display: Using more see/etc/sudo.conf File, can display percentage, enter can go to the next line, space can go to the next page, q You can exit the view more sudo.confless: Page flipping example: Using less see/etc/sudo.conf File, you can use the PgUp and PgDn Upward    And page down, q End view less sudo.conftail: Specify the number of rows or dynamic view example: use tail -10 see/etc/sudo.conf The last 10 lines of the file, Ctrl+C end  tail -10 sudo.conf

3.2 permission modification

rwx: r Represents readable, w Represents writable, x Represents that the file is an executable if rwx Any position becomes-Represents an unreadable or writable or executable file. Example: give aaa.txt Change file permissions to executable file permissions, aaa.txt File permissions are-rw-------first place:-It means documents, d The first paragraph (3 digits) of the folder represents the permissions of the owner. The second paragraph (3 digits) represents the group of the owner. The third paragraph (last 3 digits) represents the permissions of other users 421 421 421 rw-   ---     ---Command: chmod +x aaa.txt Or use the 8421 method to order: chmod 100 aaa.txt

4, Compressed file operation

4.1 packaging and compression

Windows The extension of the compressed file  .zip/.rarlinux Packaged files in: aa.tar      linux Compressed files in: bb.gz    linux Files packaged and compressed in:.tar.gzLinux Packaged files in are generally.tar At the end, the compressed command is generally.gz At the end. In general, packaging and compression are carried out together, and the suffix of the packaged and compressed file is generally.tar.gz. Command: tar -zcvf Packed compressed file name the file to be packed, where: z: call gzip Compress command  c: Packed File   v: Display running process  f: Specify file name example: package and compress/usr/tmp The compressed package of all files under the specified name is xxx.tartar -zcvf ab.tar aa.txt bb.txt Or: tar -zcvf ab.tar  *

4.2 decompression

Command: tar [-zxvf] Compressed file    Of which: x: Representative decompression example:/usr/tmp Lower ab.tar Unzip to the current directory example: unzip/usr/tmp Lower ab.tar Extract to the root directory/usr lower tar -xvf ab.tar -C /usr------C Represents the location of the specified decompression

5, Find command

5.1 grep

grep Command is a powerful text search tool. Use examples:    ps -ef | grep sshd  Find specified ssh Service process     ps -ef | grep sshd | grep -v grep Find the specified service process and exclude gerp body     ps -ef | grep sshd -c Find the number of specified processes 

5.2 find

find Command searches the directory structure for files and performs the specified actions on the search results. 

find By default, the current directory and its subdirectories are searched, and no results are filtered (that is, all files are returned), and they are all displayed on the screen.

Usage example:
	find . -name "*.log" -ls  Find in the current directory to.log The end of the file and display details. 
    find /root/ -perm 600   lookup/root/File with permission of 600 under directory 
    find . -type f -name "*.log"  Find the current directory to.log Ordinary file at the end 
    find . -type d | sort   Find and sort all current directories 
    find . -size +100M  Find current directory greater than 100 M Documents

5.3 locate

locate So that users can quickly search a path. By default, it is automatically updated once a day, so it is used locate The command cannot find the latest changed file. To avoid this situation, you can use locate Before, use updatedb Command to manually update the database. If there is no query data in the database, it will be reported locate: can not stat () `/var/lib/mlocate/mlocate.db': No such file or directory This error! updatedb Yes!

yum -y install mlocate If it's a compact version CentOS The system needs to be installed locate command

Usage example:
    locate /etc/sh search etc All in the directory sh File at the beginning 
    locate pwd Find and pwd All relevant documents

5.4 whereis

whereis Command is to locate the location of executable files, source code files and help files in the file system. The properties of these files should belong to the original code, binary files, or help files. Usage example: whereis ls    Will and ls Find out all the relevant documents

5.5 which

which The function of the command is to PATH Variable to search the location of a system command and return the first search result. Usage example:	which pwd  lookup pwd Command path 	which java  lookup path in java Path of 

6, su, sudo

6.1 su

su Used for switching between users. However, the user remains logged in before switching. If it is root Switching to ordinary or virtual users does not require a password. On the contrary, password authentication is required for ordinary users to switch to any other user.    su test:Switch to test User, but the path is still/root catalogue    su - test : Switch to test User, the path becomes/home/test    su : Switch to root User, but the path is still the original path    su - : Switch to root User, and the path is/rootsu Insufficient: if a user needs to use root Permission, you must root Tell this user the password. Users before exiting and returning: exit

6.2 sudo

sudo Is for all who want to use root Designed by ordinary users with permissions. It can give ordinary users temporary use root Right of access. Just enter the password of your account. get into sudo Profile command: vi /etc/sudoer perhaps visudo    Case:    allow hadoop User to root To execute various application commands as an identity, you need to enter hadoop User's password.    hadoop  ALL=(ALL)   ALL          Case:    Only allowed hadoop User to root Identity execution ls ,cat Command, and do not enter a password when executing.     In the configuration file:     hadoop  ALL=NOPASSWD:  /bin/ls, /bin/cat # 

7, System services

service iptables status  --see iptables Status of the service service iptables start  --open iptables service service iptables stop  --stop it iptables service service iptables restart  --restart iptables service chkconfig iptables off  --close iptables Service startup chkconfig iptables on  --open iptables Service startup

8, Network management

8.1 host name configuration

[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/networkNETWORKING=yesHOSTNAME=node1

8.2 IP address configuration

[root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

8.3 domain name mapping

/etc/hosts The file is used to do when accessing through the host name ip For address resolution. Therefore, if you want to access a host name, you need to match the host name with its corresponding host name ip Address.    [root@node1 ~]# vi /etc/hosts    #### Add node1 node2 node3 at the end

9, Scheduled task instruction crontab configuration

crontab yes Unix and Linux Instructions for setting scheduled tasks. adopt crontab Command, which can be used at fixed intervals,Execute specified system instructions or shell script. The unit of time interval can be any combination of minutes, hours, days, months, weeks and above.

crontab Installation:

yum install crontabs

Service operation instructions:

    service crond start   ## Start service 
    service crond stop    ## Shut down service 
    service crond restart ## Restart service


9.1 command format

crontab [-u user] file
crontab [-u user] [ -e | -l | -r ]

Parameter Description:
-u user: Used to set a user's crontab service  
file: file Is the name of the command file,Indicates that it will file As crontab And load the task list file crontab. 
-e: Edit a user's crontab File content. If no user is specified, it means that the current user's name is edited crontab Documents.
-l: Displays the of a user crontab File content. If no user is specified, the current user's name will be displayed crontab File content.
-r: Delete scheduled task configuration from/var/spool/cron Delete a user's from the directory crontab File. If no user is specified, the current user's will be deleted by default crontab Documents.
Command example:
    crontab file [-u user] ## Replace the current crontab with the specified file
    crontab -l [-u user]  ## Lists the current crontab of the user
    crontab -e [-u user]  ## Edit the user's current crontab

9.2 configuration description and examples

Command:*   *    *   *   *   command  Explanation: the first column of time-sharing day month week command indicates minute 1~59 Per minute*perhaps */1 express    Column 2 represents hour 0~23(0 (indicates 0 points) column 3 indicates date 1~31  Column 4 represents month 1~12  Column 5 identification number week 0~6(0 Indicates the command configuration instance to be run in column 6 of Sunday):    First open the file where the scheduled task is located:    crontab -e        Every minute date command     */1 * * * * date >> /root/date.txt         21 every night:30 restart apache.      30 21 * * * service httpd restart         4 on the 1st, 10th and 22nd of each month : 45 restart apache.       45 4 1,10,22 * * service httpd restart         Every Saturday and Sunday : 10 restart apache.      10 1 * * 6,0 service httpd restart         18 per day : 00 To 23 : 00 Restart every 30 minutes between apache.     0,30   18-23    *   *   *   service httpd restart    Restart every hour between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m apache    *  23-7/1    *   *   *   service httpd restart

10, Other commands

10.1 view current directory: pwd

Command: pwd     View current directory path

10.2 viewing process: ps -ef

Command: ps -ef    View all running processes

10.3 ending process: kill

Command: kill pid perhaps kill -9 pid(Force kill process)           pid:Process number

10.4 network communication command:

ifconfig: View network card information

Command: ifconfig or ifconfig | more

ping: Check the connection with a machine

Command: ping ip

netstat -an: View current system port

Command: netstat -an

Search for the specified port
 Command: netstat -an | grep 8080

10.5 configuring the network

Command: setup

10.6 network restart

Command: service network restart

10.7 switching users

Command: su - user name

10.8 turn off the firewall

Command: chkconfig iptables off Or:     iptables -L;     iptables -F;     service iptables stop## 

10.9 modify file permissions

Command: chmod 777

10.10 screen clearing

Command: ctrl + l

10.11 shortcut keys in VI mode

esc after:Save and exit shortcut: shift+z+z The cursor jumps to the last line. Shortcut key: shift+g Delete a row: dd Copy a line: y+y Paste copied content: p

11, Linux project deployment

11.1 installation jdk1 eight

Uninstall first open-jdkjava -versionrpm -qa | grep javarpm -e --nodeps java-1.7.0-openjdk- -e --nodeps java-1.6.0-openjdk- Start installation: mkdir /usr/local/src/javarz upload jdk tar package tar -zxvf jdk-8u181-linux-x64.tar.gzyum install glibc.i686 Configure environment variables: vi /etc/profile Add at the end line  #set java environment  JAVA_ HOME=/usr/local/src/jdk8/jdk1. 8.0_ 181  CLASSPATH=.:$ JAVA_ HOME/lib. tools. jar  PATH=$JAVA_ HOME/bin:$PATH  export JAVA_ Home classpath save exit source /etc/profile to make the changed configuration take effect immediately. Java version view the JDK version information. If 1.8 is displayed, it proves successful

11.2 install MySQL 5 six

11.2.1 upload mysql5 6 tar package

Create directory: mkdir /usr/local/src/mysql5.6 Upload: MySQL-5.6.34-1.rhel5.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar To the directory above

11.2.2 installation

Step 1: unzip

 Command: tar -xvf MySQL-5.6.34-1.rhel5.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar

Step 2: check whether mysql has been installed

 Command: rpm -qa | grep mysql    If it is already installed, uninstall it, such as: rpm -e --nodeps  mysql-libs-5.1.71-1.el6.x86_64

Step 3: install MySQL server

 Command: rpm -ivh MySQL-server-5.6.34-1.rhel5.x86_64.rpm

Step 4: install MySQL client

 Command: rpm -ivh MySQL-client-5.6.34-1.rhel5.x86_64.rpm

Step 5: check the running status of MySQL service

 Command: service mysql status

Step 6: start MySQL service

 Command: service mysql start

Step 7: log in to mysql with root account

There is a prompt when installing mysql server:

Note: this password is not secure. You need to change the initial password.

Login with password mysql account number: mysql -uroot -p
 modify root password: SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root');

11.2.3 automatic startup setting

Join system services:

chkconfig --add mysql

Auto start:

chkconfig mysql on

Query list:


Note: none of them are closed( off)There is no automatic start.

11.2.4 enable remote access

Sign in: mysql -uroot –proot Set up remote access (using root Password): grant all privileges on *.* to 'root' @'%' identified by 'root';flush privileges;sign out mysql,stay centos Open 3306 firewall in environment/sbin/iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT/etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables save/etc/init.d/iptables status

11.3 installing tomcat deployment project

Preparatory work: will web Project success war Bag, renamed ROOT.war

11.3.1 create ucenter user

In general, publishing applications are not used root Users need to create an ordinary user to publish the program; establish ucenter User: useradd -d /ucenter ucenter Set password: passwd ucenter (password ucenter)Switch users: su - ucenter

11.3.2 installing Tomcat

tomcat As long as you unzip it, you can use it. 1. Create web catalogue mkdir /ucenter/web2,upload apache-tomcat-7.0.57.tar.gz3,Decompression: tar -xvf apache-tomcat-7.0.57.tar.gz4,Rename: mv apache-tomcat-7.0.57 itcast-usermanage5,start-up tomcat:      cd itcast-usermanage/bin/     ./ perhaps sh startup.sh6,View log:     tail -f ../logs/catalina.out7,View effect found inaccessible: 8. Firewall opens 8080 port / SBIN / iptables - I input - P TCP -- dport 8080 - J accept / etc / RC d/init. D / iptables save9. Installation succeeded

11.3.3 deploy user management project

1. Upload usermanage SQL and root War to / ucenter/web

2. Execute database script

 cat user_manager.sql | mysql -uroot -p123456

3. Deploy web application

3.1 delete all files under webapps

 cd /ucenter/web/usermanage/webapps rm -rf *

3.2 copy root War to webapps

 cp /ucenter/web/ROOT.war .

3.3 restart tomcat

 cd ../bin/ sh && tail -f ../logs/catalina.out

3.4 start Browser Test

Note: the solution to the problem of Chinese garbled code in the deployment project under Centos environment

Today on a new computer CentOS Use on machine c3p0 Connection pool operation mysql There is a Chinese garbled code problem in the database, which is specifically manifested as: there is no Chinese garbled code problem during query, and there is Chinese garbled code when writing data. It is also the same when viewing the database character set on the machine UTF8,There should be no Chinese random code. Finally c3p0 In the configuration file jdbcUrl Add after:?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF8 Chinese won't be garbled.

[C3P0 configuration file]

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><c3p0-config>  <default-config>    <property name="driverClass">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>	<property name="jdbcUrl">jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/user_manager_yun6?useUnicode=true&amp;characterEncoding=UTF8 </property>	<property name="user">root</property>	<property name="password">root</property>	<property name="acquireIncrement">2</property>	<property name="initialPoolSize">5</property>	<property name="minPoolSize">1</property>	<property name="maxPoolSize">5</property>  </default-config></c3p0-config>

11.4 using FastDFS under Linux

Relevant installation packages have been packaged on the cloud disk. Link: Extraction code: 66tn

Single node FastDFS

The whole installation process is very complex and error prone. It is recommended to make multiple backups.

We are not going to install multiple virtual machines here, so we will install both tracker and storage together.

11.4.1 installation of gcc

GCC Used for C Language code to compile and run, using yum Command installation: yum -y install gcc The decompression command will be used later( unzip),So it can be used here yum hold unzip Install it, too yum install -y unzip zip

11.4.2 installing libevent

yum -y install libevent

11.4.3 installing libfastcommon master

Unzip the just uploaded libfastcommon-master.zipunzip Enter the directory where the decompression is completed cd libfastcommon-master Compile and install:./ ./ install

11.4.4 installing fastdfs

tar -zxvf FastDFS_v5.08.tar.gzcd FastDFS./ install

If the installation is successful, you will see / etc / init D / see the provided script file below:

ll /etc/init.d/ | grep fdfs

fdfs_trackerd yes tracker Startup script fdfs_storaged yes storage Startup script

You can see the default configuration file template in the / etc/fdfs / Directory:

ll /etc/fdfs/

tarcker.conf.sample yes tracker Profile template for storage.conf.sample yes storage Profile template for client.conf.sample Is the profile template for the client

11.4.5 configure and start the tracker service

1)First copy the template file cp /etc/fdfs/tracker.conf.sample /etc/fdfs/tracker.conf2)Modify the copied configuration file: vim /etc/fdfs/tracker.conf 

The revised contents are as follows:

base_path=/Project name/tracker                 # The root directory where logs and data are stored

3)New directory:

mkdir -p /Project name/tracker

Note: turn off the firewall:

chkconfig iptables off

4)start and stopping

service fdfs_trackerd start # Start FDFS_ Tracker service, stop using stop

inspect FastDFS Tracker Server Start successfully:

ps -ef | grep fdfs_trackerd

set up tracker Service startup:

chkconfig fdfs_trackerd on

11.4.6 configure and start the storage service

1)First copy the template file

cp /etc/fdfs/storage.conf.sample /etc/fdfs/storage.conf

2)Modify the copied configuration file:

vim /etc/fdfs/storage.conf

The revised content is as follows:

    base_path=/Project name/storage                 # Data and log file storage root directory 
    store_path0=/Project name/storage           # First storage directory 
    tracker_server=       #  tracker server IP and port 

3)New directory:

mkdir -p /Project name/storage

Note: turn off the firewall: chkconfig iptables off

4)start and stopping

service fdfs_storaged start  # Start FDFS_ Stored service, stop

set up storage Service startup:

chkconfig fdfs_storaged on

ps -ef | grep fdfs

11.5 installing fastdfs nginx module

11.5.1 decompression

tar -zxvf fastdfs-nginx-module_v1.16.tar.gz11.5.2 modify config1)get into src catalogue cd fastdfs-nginx-module/src/2)edit configvim config Use the following bottom line command::%s+/usr/local/+/usr/+g Put all/usr/local Replace with /usr,This is the correct directory:

11.5.3 configure nginx and FastDFS associated configuration files

Copy the configuration file in the fastdfs nginx module source code to the / etc/fdfs directory and modify it

cp /usr/local/Project name/fastdfs-nginx-module/src/mod_fastdfs.conf /etc/fdfs/ vi /etc/fdfs/mod_fastdfs.conf

Modify the following configuration:

connect_timeout=10                       # Timeout length of client access file connection (unit: seconds) tracker_server=    # tracker service IP And port url_have_group_name=true                # Access link prefix plus group name store_path0=/leyou/storage            # File storage path

Copy some configuration files of FastDFS to / etc/fdfs directory

cd /usr/local/Project name/FastDFS/conf/cp http.conf mime.types /etc/fdfs/

11.6 installing the plugin of Nginx

11.6.1 if nginx is not installed

1. nginx dependent installation Library

yum -y install gcc pcre pcre-devel zlib zlib-devel openssl openssl-devel

2. Unzip the installation package

tar -zxvf nginx-1.10.0.tar.gz

3. Configure the nginx installation package and specify fastdfs nginx model

cd nginx-1.10.0 ./configure --prefix=/opt/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/bin/nginx --add-module=/usr/local/leyou/fastdfs-nginx-module/src

Note: in execution/ When configuring nginx parameters, you need to compile the fastdfs nginx moudle source code as a module.

4. Compile and install

make && make install

11.6.2 if nginx has been installed

1, get into nginx catalog: cd /usr/local/Project name/nginx-1.10.0/2, to configure FastDFS modular./configure --prefix=/opt/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/bin/nginx --add-module=/usr/local/Project name/fastdfs-nginx-module/src Note: during this configuration, you need to add fastdfs-nginx-moudle Module 3. Compile. Be careful not to install this time( install)make4,replace nginx Binary file:Backup: mv /usr/bin/nginx /usr/bin/nginx-bak With newly compiled nginx The startup file replaces the original one: cp objs/nginx /usr/bin/

11.6.3 start nginx

Configure nginx integration fastdfs module

We need to modify the nginx configuration file in / opt / nginx / config / nginx In the conf file:

vim /opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

Replace the original server 80 {...} code in the file with the following code:

server {    listen       80;    server_name  image.Project;	# Listen to the domain name with group, and submit it to FastDFS module for processing location ~ / group ([0-9]) / {ngx_FastDFS_module;} location / {        root   html;        index  index.html index.htm;    }     error_ page   500 502 503 504  /50x. html;     location = /50x. html {        root   html;    }}

Start nginx:

nginx	# start-up nginx nginx -s stop	# stop it nginx nginx -s reload	# Reload configuration file

You can check whether nginx has been started successfully through ps -ef | grep nginx

11.6.4 setting nginx startup

Create a startup script:

vim /etc/init.d/nginx

Add the following:

#!/bin/sh## nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon## chkconfig:   - 85 15# description:  NGINX is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \#               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server# processname: nginx# config:      /etc/nginx/nginx.conf# config:      /etc/sysconfig/nginx# pidfile:     /var/run/ # Source function library.. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions # Source networking configuration.. /etc/sysconfig/network # Check that networking is up.[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0 nginx="/usr/bin/nginx"prog=$(basename $nginx) NGINX_CONF_FILE="/opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf" [ -f /etc/sysconfig/nginx ] && . /etc/sysconfig/nginx lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/nginx make_dirs() {   # make required directories   user=`$nginx -V 2>&1 | grep "configure arguments:.*--user=" | sed 's/[^*]*--user=\([^ ]*\).*/\1/g' -`   if [ -n "$user" ]; then      if [ -z "`grep $user /etc/passwd`" ]; then         useradd -M -s /bin/nologin $user      fi      options=`$nginx -V 2>&1 | grep 'configure arguments:'`      for opt in $options; do          if [ `echo $opt | grep '.*-temp-path'` ]; then              value=`echo $opt | cut -d "=" -f 2`              if [ ! -d "$value" ]; then                  # echo "creating" $value                  mkdir -p $value && chown -R $user $value              fi          fi       done    fi} start() {    [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5    [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6    make_dirs    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "    daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE    retval=$?    echo    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile    return $retval} stop() {    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "    killproc $prog -QUIT    retval=$?    echo    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile    return $retval} restart() {    configtest || return $?    stop    sleep 1    start} reload() {    configtest || return $?    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "    killproc $nginx -HUP    RETVAL=$?    echo} force_reload() {    restart} configtest() {  $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE} rh_status() {    status $prog} rh_status_q() {    rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1} case "$1" in    start)        rh_status_q && exit 0        $1        ;;    stop)        rh_status_q || exit 0        $1        ;;    restart|configtest)        $1        ;;    reload)        rh_status_q || exit 7        $1        ;;    force-reload)        force_reload        ;;    status)        rh_status        ;;    condrestart|try-restart)        rh_status_q || exit 0            ;;    *)        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"        exit 2esac

Modify file permissions and add them to the service list

# Modify permissions
chmod 777 /etc/init.d/nginx 
# Add to service list
chkconfig --add /etc/init.d/nginx 

Set startup

chkconfig nginx on

11.7 installing Elasticsearch

Requires virtual machine jdk1 8 and above

11.7.1 create a new user leyou

For security reasons, elasticsearch is not allowed to run under the root account by default.

Create user:

useradd leyou

Set password:

passwd leyou

Switch users:

su - leyou

11.7.2 upload and unzip the installation package

We will upload the installation package to:/home/leyou Directory decompression: tar -zxvf elasticsearch-6.2.4.tar.gz We rename the directory: mv elasticsearch-6.3.0/ elasticsearch Enter to view the directory structure:

11.7.3 modify configuration

We enter the config Directory: cd config

There are two configuration files that need to be modified:


Elasticsearch is based on Lucene, and the underlying layer of Lucene is implemented in java, so we need to configure jvm parameters.

Edit JVM options:

vim jvm.options

The default configuration is as follows:


Too much memory, let's turn it down:



vim elasticsearch.yml

Modify the data and log directory: /home/leyou/elasticsearch/data # Data directory location path.logs: /home/leyou/elasticsearch/logs # Log directory location

We modified the data and logs directories to point to the installation directory of elasticsearch. However, these two directories do not exist, so we need to create them.

Enter the root directory of elasticsearch and create:

mkdir datamkdir logs

Modify the bound ip: # bound to, allowing any ip to access

Only local access is allowed by default. After it is modified to, it can be accessed remotely

11.7.4 operation

get into elasticsearch/bin Directory, you can see the following executable file: then enter the command:./elasticsearch Or run in the background:./elasticsearch -d

11.7.5 error 1: kernel too low

Modify elasticsearch YML file, add the following configuration at the bottom: then restart

bootstrap.system_call_filter: false

11.7.6 error 2: insufficient file permissions

We use the leyou user instead of root, so the file permissions are insufficient.

First log in as root. Enter the exit command directly

Then modify the configuration file:

vim /etc/security/limits.conf

Add the following:

* soft nofile 65536 * hard nofile 131072 * soft nproc 4096 * hard nproc 4096

11.7.7 error 3: insufficient number of threads

[1]: max number of threads [1024] for user [leyou] is too low, increase to at least [4096]

Continue to modify the configuration:

vim /etc/security/limits.d/90-nproc.conf

Modify the following:

  • soft nproc 1024

Change to

  • soft nproc 4096

11.7.8 error 4: process virtual memory

[3]: max virtual memory areas vm.max_map_count [65530] likely too low, increase to at least [262144]

vm.max_map_count: limit the number of VMA (virtual memory area) that a process can own. Continue to modify the configuration file:

vim /etc/sysctl.conf

Add the following:


Then execute the command:

sysctl -p

11.7.9 restart the terminal window

If the Xshell configuration is not correct, you must restart the Xshell.
11.8 installing RabbitMQ

cd /usr/local/myapp
mkdir rabbitmq
cd rabbitmq

11.8.1 installing Erlang

1. Online installation

yum install esl-erlang_17.3-1~centos~6_amd64.rpm
yum install esl-erlang-compat-R14B-1.el6.noarch.rpm

2. Offline installation

Execute the commands in sequence:

1)rpm -ivh esl-erlang-17.3-1.x86_64.rpm --force --nodeps

2)rpm -ivh esl-erlang_17.3-1centos6_amd64.rpm --force --nodeps

3)rpm -ivh esl-erlang-compat-R14B-1.el6.noarch.rpm --force --nodeps

11.8.2 installing RabbitMQ


rpm -ivh rabbitmq-server-3.4.1-1.noarch.rpm

11.8.3 setting configuration file

cp /usr/share/doc/rabbitmq-server-3.4.1/rabbitmq.config.example/etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.config

Enable user remote access

vi /etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.config

Be careful to remove the trailing comma.

11.8.4 start and stop

service rabbitmq-server start service rabbitmq-server stop service rabbitmq-server restart

11.8.5 open the web interface management tool

rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management service rabbitmq-server restart

11.8.6 setting startup

chkconfig rabbitmq-server on

11.8.7 firewall opening 15672 port

/sbin/iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 15672 -j ACCEPT /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables save

11.9 redis installation and configuration

11.9.1 installation


tar -xvf redis-4.0.9.tar.gz

Compile and install

 mv redis-4.0.9 redis cd redis make && make install

11.9.2 configuration

Modify redis. In the installation directory Conf file

vim redis.conf

Modify the following configuration:

#bind # Comment this line of code and listen for all ip Address, accessible from the Internet protected-mode no # hold yes Change to no,Allow Internet access daemonize yes # Change no to yes and run in the background

11.9.3 start or stop

redis provides server commands and client commands:

redis-server The server command can include the following parameters: start start-up stop stop it redis-cli Client console, including parameters: -h xxx Specify the server address. The default value is -p xxx Specify the server port. The default value is 6379

11.9.4 setting startup

  1. Enter a command to create a new file

vim /etc/init.d/redis

Enter the following:

# chkconfig:   2345 90 10
# description:  Redis is a persistent key-value database
case "$1" in  
        if [ -f $PIDFILE ]  
                echo "$PIDFILE exists, process is already running or crashed"  
                echo "Starting Redis server..."  
                $EXEC $CONF  
        if [ "$?"="0" ]   
              echo "Redis is running..."  
        if [ ! -f $PIDFILE ]  
                echo "$PIDFILE does not exist, process is not running"  
                PID=$(cat $PIDFILE)  
                echo "Stopping ..."  
                $REDIS_CLI -p $REDISPORT SHUTDOWN  
                while [ -x ${PIDFILE} ]  
                    echo "Waiting for Redis to shutdown ..."  
                    sleep 1  
                echo "Redis stopped"  
        ${0} stop  
        ${0} start  
    echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/redis {start|stop|restart|force-reload}" >&2  
        exit 1  

Then save and exit

Note: the following information needs to be adjusted according to the installation directory:

EXEC=/usr/local/bin/redis-server # The address where the script is executed

REDIS_CLI=/usr/local/bin/redis-cli # The address where the client executes the script

PIDFILE=/var/run/ # Process id file address

CONF="/usr/local/src/redis-3.0.2/redis.conf" #Profile address

2) Set permissions

chmod 755 /etc/init.d/redis

3) Start test

/etc/init.d/redis start

If the startup is successful, the following information will be prompted:

Starting Redis server...
Redis is running...

4) Set startup and self startup

chkconfig --add /etc/init.d/redis
chkconfig redis on

Original link

Added by crazytigger on Wed, 09 Feb 2022 16:05:55 +0200